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公共场所的母乳喂养Breastfeeding in Public


公共场所的母乳喂养Breastfeeding in Public

Breastfeeding in Public

公共场所的母乳喂养

Michaelene Gerster Trocola

Illinois USA

From: NEW BEGINNINGS, Vol. 22 No. 6, November-December 2005, pp. 238-243

 

The days after birth involve a dance of sorts. Mother and baby take turns leading and following while both adjust to the rhythm of new life. As one day slips into the next, a routine is established. The world doesn‘‘t slow down for the breastfeeding dyad, however. After the early weeks have passed and mother resumes normal activities, including social obligations, work, errands, and appointments, breastfeeding in public may or may not present itself as a challenge.

宝宝出生后的日子演变成一种生活的舞步。妈妈和宝宝轮流引导和跟随对方以使双方都能适应新的生活节奏。随着日子一天天继续,生活的规律逐渐建立起来。但是时间是不会因为母乳的妈妈和宝宝而放慢脚步的。最初的几个星期过后,妈妈要恢复正常的活动,包括社会义务,工作,差旅和约会,对有些妈妈来说在公共场合的母乳喂养或许会成为一项挑战,而有些则不会。

 

Author Katie Allison Granju writes, "Surveys have revealed that far too many women are uncomfortable at the thought of nursing their baby in public and that this discomfort is a common cause for disruption of the breastfeeding relationship" (Granju 1999). Mothers who are uncertain about breastfeeding in public can be reassured by the fact that it is not illegal in any state in the US (see "Breastfeeding and the Law" on page 240).

作家Katie Allison Granju这样写到:“调查显示有太多的妇女在公共场合哺育她们的宝宝时会感觉到不舒服,而这种不舒服的感觉是影响母乳喂养的最常见的原因”(Granju1999. 不确定是否可以在公共场合哺乳的妈妈们可以放心,事实上,无论在美国的哪一个州,公共场合哺乳都是不违法的。(详见240页的“母乳喂养和相关法律”)

 

In the presence of others, even if it isn‘‘t a public setting, some mothers may feel the need to explain their parenting choices or may wonder, "What do people think when I nurse in front of them?" Regardless of what people think or how they react, the benefits reaped from human milk remain the same. Breastfeeding boosts babies‘‘ immune systems, protects against common diseases (even some cancers), saves lives by preventing illness or decreasing symptoms, and may even have a protective effect against Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

在与他人一起的时候,哪怕不是在公共场合,一些妈妈们也觉得需要为她们选择的养育方法而作出解释,或者会疑虑“我在他人面前哺乳,他们会怎么想?”不管人们怎么想或者做出什么反应,母乳对宝宝的益处是毋庸质疑的。母乳可以强健宝宝的免疫系统,抵御一些常见疾病(甚至某些癌症),通过抵抗疾病或减轻症状来挽救生命,甚至对新生儿猝死综合症也有防护的效果。

 

Cultural Attitudes

文化倾向

Many cultures don‘‘t think twice about seeing a mother breastfeed her baby. As cultural anthropologist Katherine Dettwyler states:

很多文化都认为母亲哺育孩子是理所应当的。人类学家Katherine Dettwyler这样说道:

 

[I]In most cultures around the world, breasts hold no sexual connotations for either men or women. Sexual behavior does not involve the breasts, which are perceived as existing for the sole purpose of feeding children (Dettwyler 1995).

在全世界的大部分文化中,不论男女,乳房都没有任何性含义。性行为里不包括乳房,乳房只有一个作用,那就是哺育后代。(Dettwyler 1995

 

In the United States, however, baring a breast to nourish and comfort a child is sometimes viewed as taboo.

可是在美国,有时候袒露胸怀为宝宝哺乳却被视为禁忌。

 

When people see a woman using her breasts for their most basic function...they may consciously or unconsciously confuse it with something that‘‘s sexual and should be done in privacy (Pugliese 2000).

当人们看到一个女人使用她的乳房运作最基本的功能时,他们会自觉或不自觉的将其认为是与性有关的行为,应该隐密的完成。(Pugliese 2000

 

In a society that‘‘s riddled with contradictions about what is appropriate, it‘‘s not surprising that some women are unsure of how to handle certain aspects of their social lives as breastfeeding mothers. What‘‘s all the fuss about? Some people are unsettled by the idea of a child being nourished by something that comes from his mother‘‘s body. "Bodily functions are often treated with distaste or disgust...[and] may be considered ‘dirty‘‘" (Schiedel and Chiono 2000). Regardless, all that matters is one fact: breasts are designed for breastfeeding.

在一个对正常行为没有明确怎么做才合适的社会,我们一点也不奇怪作为哺乳妈妈的女性们,在社会生活的某些方面不知应该如何应对。这些想法上的混乱是什么?一些人对于孩子吃的东西是由妈妈身体的某个部位生产出来的观念感到不适,因为身体的某些部位总是被人厌恶或被认为是“脏的”(Schiedel and Chiono 2000)。不管怎么说,事实只有一个,乳房就是为哺乳而设计的。

 

Interestingly, most women reveal less skin while breastfeeding than performers in the entertainment industry, and even some women at the local grocery store. Sociologist Barbara Behrmann notes:

有趣的是,很多哺乳妈妈裸露的肌肤比娱乐场所的表演者裸露的肌肤要少的多,甚至不比一家当地杂货店里的女人裸露的肌肤多。社会学家Barbara Behrmann这样说道:

 

Women in the United States nurse in a culture in which our breasts are used to sell everything from cars to beer; in which deep cleavage dominates the checkout aisle...and in which the number of women who artificially enhance their breasts has increased 593 percent from 1992 to 2002 (Behrmann 2005).

美国的哺乳妇女面对的是一个靠乳房来销售从汽车到啤酒等所有东西的社会,在这样的社会,需要依靠深深的乳沟来占领结帐的通道…正因如此,从1992年至2002年,人工隆胸术增长了593%( Behrmann 2005).

 

Negative attention in the US media hasn‘‘t helped to portray public settings as breastfeeding friendly. In the summer of 2005, high-profile journalist Barbara Walters sparked a heated debate on television, in newspapers, and on Web sites after commenting on her show, The View, that being near a breastfeeding mother during an airplane flight made her "uncomfortable."

美国媒体负面的注意力无法使公共设施在设计上更方便母乳喂养。2005年夏天,著名记者Barbara Walters在视点节目秀上评论在一次乘机旅行中,坐在一位哺乳妈妈旁边令她感到不舒服,评论一出,立即在电视,报纸和网络上引发了激烈的辩论。

 

A month later, The Chicago Tribune reported that a mother, Rebecca Gray, was asked to leave the pool of an amusement park as she discreetly nursed her four-month-old and kept an eye on her splashing toddler. She was informed of more "private" locations for nursing mothers. She commented, "I got out of the pool and continued feeding my baby on a chair beside the pool, and then I left...but the whole experience made me feel bad." A similar situation happened to author Hilary Flower as she nursed her baby at a local public pool. Luckily, she knew her rights and had supportive friends to back her up. As she wrote in The St. Petersburg Times, "Some moms carry a copy of the Florida law around with them in case they get hassled. Now I do, too." (For details on breastfeeding legislation by US state, go to www.lalecheleague.org/ LawBills.html.)

一个月之后,芝加哥论坛报道了一位母亲Rebecca Gray在一所娱乐公园的戏水池隐密地给她四个月的宝宝哺乳并看顾着正在泼水的学步儿时被要求离开。她被要求去一个更私密的专为哺乳妈妈准备的地方。她说:“我离开了戏水池,继续坐在池边的椅子上喂我的宝宝,喂完之后离开…但是整个的过程带给我的感觉很不好。”同样的情况也发生在作家Hilary Flower身上,当时她正在一个公共泳池边给她的宝宝哺乳。幸运的是,她知道自己的权利并且有朋友在一边支持她。她在圣彼德博格时代杂志里这样写道:“一些妈妈们会随身携带佛罗里达州律法以备不时之需,现在我也这样做了。”(关于美国各州与哺乳相关的法律条文,详情请访问www.lalecheleague.org/ LawBills.html.

 

More recently, popular talk show host and psychologist Dr. Phil McGraw was recruiting guests to appear on a show about breastfeeding in public. At one time, his Web site asked people with strong opinions on the subject to contact him. One section included the question, "Do you need Dr. Phil‘‘s help at confronting your friend or family member about their inappropriate habit to breastfeed in public?" These examples, just a few among many, illustrate and help perpetuate the attitude that breastfeeding shouldn‘‘t be done in public.

不久之前,著名脱口秀栏目策划了一期关于在公共场合哺乳的节目,嘉宾里面包括心理学家Phil McGraw博士。他曾经在他的网站里要求一些在这方面有强烈看法的人联系他。其中有一个部分包含了问题:“你是否需要Phil博士的协助来面对您的那些在公共场合哺乳这一不适当的习惯的朋友或家庭成员?”这些例子,仅是众多案例中的一小部分,说明并协助延续了不应该在公共场合哺乳的态度。

 

What‘‘s a breastfeeding mother to do? Stay at home until her child weans? Run for cover if her baby needs to nurse while others are around? Of course not; those aren‘‘t practical options. If nursing in public is a roadblock in your breastfeeding relationship, preparation, practice, and breastfeeding support can help boost your confidence. The information below will help you on your mothering journey -- take what works and leave the rest. The most important thing is that you do what‘‘s best for you and your baby.

哺乳妈妈们应该怎么做呢?一直呆在家里直到断奶吗?如果需要哺乳而又有旁人在场的情况下寻找遮掩吗?当然不用!这些都是不实际的办法。如果在公共场合哺乳是你母乳历程中的跘脚石的话,准备、练习和寻找哺乳支持会使你更有信心。以下的信息也许在你做母亲的历程中可以帮助到你,从里面找出对你有用的信息吧。重要的是你所做的对你自己和宝宝都有益处。

 

Preparation Is Key

准备工作是关键

New mothers learn pretty quickly that preparation for an outing is key. As stated in THE WOMANLY ART OF BREASTFEEDING, "Don‘‘t let a concern about feeding your baby in public keep you from enjoying the advantages and convenience of breastfeeding." For a baby who is exclusively breastfed, all he requires is his mother. All mother needs is a simple diaper bag and a moment of privacy to help baby latch on when he is ready to nurse.

新手妈妈们很快认识到出行之前的准备是关键。《母乳喂养的女性艺术》这本书里写道:“不要让在公共场合哺乳的顾虑影响你享受母乳喂养带来的好处和便利。”对于一个全母乳宝宝,他所需要的一切就是他的妈妈。而妈妈需要的仅是一个简单可置放尿片的妈咪包和当需要哺乳时,片刻的隐蔽来帮助宝宝含乳。

 

Some mothers avoid breastfeeding in public by expressing their milk to bottle-feed. Their babies still benefit from receiving human milk, but neither of them receive the calming effects that nursing at the breast provides. In addition, young babies may have more trouble learning to breastfeed effectively, since different techniques are required for removing milk from a bottle than from the breast. Mothers will have to clean bottles and pump parts, and carry extra items in their diaper bags. They also run a higher risk of developing a plugged duct or breast infection when feedings at the breast are delayed. The challenges associated with offering human milk in a bottle while in public can be overcome, but:

一些妈妈为了避免在公共场合母乳喂养而将母乳挤出来放到奶瓶里。她们的宝宝同样可以享受到母乳里的营养,但是母子双方却都无法享受母乳喂养带给母亲和宝宝的镇定安抚的作用。除此之外,年幼的宝宝在学习有效率地哺乳上可能会面临较多的困难,因为用奶嘴吃奶和吸吮乳头的技术要求是不同的。妈妈们还需要清洗奶瓶和吸乳器配件,并且在妈咪包里携带更多的东西。而且妈妈们还会因为哺乳时间的延迟而增加了患乳腺堵塞和乳腺炎的风险。虽说在公共场所使用奶瓶喂母乳的挑战可以被克服,但是:

 

Many women find it easier, healthier, more economical, more ecologically sound, and more relaxing to fit breastfeeding in with all their daily activities than it is to fit occasional bottle-feeding in with their breastfeeding (Pugliese 2000).

很多女性发现将母乳喂养融入日常生活中与在母乳喂养的过程中时不时的使用奶瓶喂养相比较,前者更简单,更健康,更经济,更环保,更轻松(Pugliese 2000)

 

Another benefit of breastfeeding is that it helps hone parenting instincts.

母乳喂养的另一个好处是协助锻炼母亲的本能直觉。

 

The more you hold your child and nurse him on demand, the higher your levels of prolactin and oxytocin -- the "mothering" hormones -- will soar....Babies are biologically programmed to let us know what they need, if we just listen to them (O‘‘Mara 2000).

在宝宝需要的时候抱着宝宝和哺乳宝宝的次数越多,你的泌乳素和催产素——“母爱”荷尔蒙──分泌的越多……宝宝天生就有能力表达他的需要,我们只要倾听就可以(O‘‘Mara 2000)

 

If you breastfeed according to your baby‘‘s needs, you‘‘ll become familiar with his early feeding cues (such as rooting for the breast or sucking on his hands) and it‘‘s likely that you‘‘ll be able to anticipate his needs, whether you‘‘re at home, enjoying the company of others at a social gathering, or running an errand. Timing is everything. To avoid tears and tantrums, nurse when you see the telltale signs that he is hungry, needs comforting, or just needs to be close to you. Breastfeeding may attract unwanted attention in public if you wait until your baby begins to fuss or cry frantically before you offer your breast.

如果你是根据宝宝的需要来哺乳的,那你就会很熟悉宝宝想要吃奶的暗号(例如寻找乳房或者吸吮手指),看起来就像是你提前知道宝宝的需求似的,不论你是在家里,在聚会中或是在外出的时候。及时意味着一切。如果想要避免宝宝的哭闹和发脾气,就要在你看到宝宝发出饿了、需要安慰或仅仅想要靠近你的信号时及时地哺喂他。如果你在公共场合直到宝宝出现哭闹才开始哺乳,可能会招来很多不必要的目光。

 

Out and About

外出的时候

An exclusively breastfed baby will need to nurse every couple of hours, especially in the early months. Some babies may nurse more often. If you feel confident and comfortable with your location and the surrounding people, don‘‘t hesitate to breastfeed your baby.

纯母乳喂养的宝宝可能每隔几小时就要吃一次奶,特别是那些只有几个月大的宝宝。一些宝宝也许吃得次数更多。如果你对周围的环境和人感到信任和放心的时候,请大胆地为你的宝宝哺乳。

 

Wherever the destination, it will prove helpful to evaluate your surroundings upon arrival. At a shopping center, for example, be on the lookout for accessible spots to nurse before your baby is hungry. Many stores designate rooms for breastfeeding mothers, but remember that a hungry baby will not be a patient baby! Having a few areas in mind instead of searching for that "perfect" spot with a cranky baby will be easier on you both. In restaurants, request a seat that is out of the way of high traffic areas -- the less you have to move your chair to accommodate passersby, the better. Beware of the common suggestion to use a public toilet facility while breastfeeding. Adults and bottle-fed babies aren‘‘t expected to eat in a toilet facility; the same should hold true for breastfed babies.

无论目的地在哪里,到达之后马上考察周围的环境是很有帮助的。例如在商场里,在宝宝饿了之前先选择好几个适合母乳喂养的地方。很多商店里面专门为哺乳妈妈设置有母婴室,但是请记住,一个饥饿的宝宝可不是一个很有耐心的宝宝!在脑海中记住几个地点比带着焦急不安的宝宝寻找最佳哺乳地点对你俩来说要简单的多。如果是在餐厅里,要求一个远离高人流量的座位──旁人通过时越少移动你的椅子越好。请当心那常见的要你利用公厕进行哺乳的建议,大人和奶粉喂养的宝宝不需要在厕所里吃东西,母乳喂养的宝宝也应该一样。

 

Some women are more concerned about nursing in front of family members and friends than in front of strangers -- that‘‘s because criticism and questions from people we don‘‘t know are usually easier to ignore. If you‘‘re criticized for breastfeeding during a family gathering, there are ways to diffuse the situation. Remember that some people may just not be aware of the exquisite benefits of human milk. It‘‘s also possible that your dedication to breastfeeding makes them defensive or feel criticized for their own parenting choices. As explained in a New Beginnings article by Marianne Vakiener, five tactful ways to respond to criticism involve:

相比在陌生人面前哺乳,有些妈妈反而更介意在家人和朋友面前哺乳,因为陌生人的质疑和问题很容易被忽略。如果你在家庭聚会的时候因母乳喂养而遭到质疑,有一些方法可以缓和当时的气氛。请记住,有的人只是不知道母乳有这么多好处罢了。也有可能是你对母乳喂养的极力推崇使他们觉得需要为自己选择的喂养方式辩解或是感觉遭受到了批判。Marianne Vakiener在《新起点》的文章中提到,有以下五种方式来回应质疑:

 

Ignore: walking away or changing the subject;

忽视:走开或转移话题

 

Inform: sharing books, articles, or a medical professional‘‘s thoughts on breastfeeding according to baby‘‘s needs;

提供信息:分享书、文章或医学专家对于依宝宝需求喂奶的观点

 

Humor: making a joke about the situation or yourself, not the other person;

幽默:对自己目前的处境开一个玩笑,注意不要开他人的玩笑

 

Acknowledge: recognizing the person‘‘s viewpoint and asking further questions without agreeing or responding to criticism;

承认:承认他人的观点,在不表示同意或回应质疑的情况下继续询问其他的问题

 

Empathize: being empathetic to demonstrate that you understand the other person‘‘s feeling and meaning.

共情:表示出你非常理解他们的感觉和想表达的意思

 

Employing one of these tactics may work for you in difficult situations when the value of breastfeeding is questioned.

当你的母乳喂养的观点遭受质疑时,使用其中一种方法来应对或许可以度过困境。

 

Clothing Makes a Difference

The right clothing can make nursing simple and inconspicuous. Two piece outfits or tops that unbutton from the bottom are convenient because they can be pulled up or opened from the waist. If you‘‘re concerned about modesty, clothing can be arranged to cover the breast. Depending on the position used, your baby may also cover your torso. Many companies sell stylish nursing bras, shirts, tank tops, and dresses with concealed openings for breastfeeding. Become familiar with how they open so that you can quickly and easily latch your baby on to the breast. (A variety of clothing retailers advertise in NEW BEGINNINGS magazine. For more information, see the pages within or go to the "Valued Advertisers" section of the LLLI Web site at www.lalecheleague.org/valued.html.)

哺乳装:让喂奶更轻松

合适的哺乳装可以让喂奶更加简单和低调。两片式开口的套装或者上衣可以从腰间拉开或者打开,相当方便。如果你考虑到端庄,可调整衣服以遮挡住乳房。改变哺乳的姿势,宝宝也可以遮挡住你的胸部。不少公司都出售时尚哺乳文胸、T恤、无袖上衣和裙子,它们有隐蔽开口以方便哺乳。熟悉开口方式能让你快速轻易地喂奶。(《新起点》杂志登了很多哺乳装零售商的广告。如需了解更多,你可以登录LLLI网站参考“有用的广告信息”一节,网址:www.lalecheleague.org/valued.html

 

Babywearing (carrying your baby in a sling or a pouch carrier) also lends itself to inconspicuous nursing. As your baby shows early signs of hunger or fussiness, adjust his position and your clothing for nursing. The extra fabric from some baby carriers can easily be pulled over your baby‘‘s head and you can continue with the task at hand. With the fabric of the carrier blocking out distractions, your baby can settle down to the business of eating and may nurse quietly off to sleep. This strategy is one that can become a familiar routine for you and your baby, making it more likely that he will be comfortable with it even in unfamiliar places.

把宝宝背起来(用背巾或者育儿袋)也能让哺乳变得“低调一些”。宝宝有点饿或困时,调整他的姿势和你的衣服以方便喂奶。有些背巾的一端有多余的布料可以将之放在宝宝的头部,这样你就能方便操作。有了背巾布的遮挡,宝宝可以安心地吃奶然后舒舒服服地睡着。这个办法可以成为你和宝宝熟悉的常规,因此更有可能就算在陌生环境中,宝宝也可以感觉很舒服。

 

Some sources suggest putting a baby blanket over your shoulder so that it drapes over your baby‘‘s head. Some babies don‘‘t like this strategy much, so it doesn‘‘t work for every mother and baby. Also, the blanket-over-the-shoulder approach creates a distinctive look that announces to everyone in sight that a breastfeeding baby is present. Many breastfeeding mothers prefer more inconspicuous strategies for breastfeeding in public places.

还有人建议在肩上搭一块婴儿毯来遮住宝宝的头。不过有些宝宝不喜欢头被罩住,所以这个办法并非对所有母婴都适用。而且肩上披毯子的姿势看上去很怪,等于向每个人昭告你正在喂奶。大多数妈妈还是喜欢采用更低调的办法来解决公众场合喂奶的问题。

 

If you‘‘re self-conscious about what you might be revealing while latching baby onto the breast or breastfeeding, practice at home. Your partner, a close friend, or even a mirror can give helpful feedback and put you at ease. And don‘‘t forget about attending La Leche League meetings! They provide the perfect setting to connect with other mothers, learn about breastfeeding, and, of course, see live demonstrations of how other mothers go about nursing their babies or toddlers in public. Family, friends, and LLL meetings are wonderful sources of information, support, and encouragement. (To find an LLL meeting near you, call 800-LALECHE or go to www.lalecheleague.org.)

如果你对喂奶或宝宝含乳时袒露胸部或者乳房感到不自在,你可以在家多练习。你可以对着伴侣、好友甚至镜子喂奶,这样会得到很有用的反馈信息,让你放松。还有不要忘记参加国际母乳会聚会,它是你与其他妈妈交流以及学习母乳喂养的良好机会。你可以在聚会上看其他妈妈亲身示范如何在公众场合给婴儿或者学步儿喂奶。家人、朋友以及国际母乳会聚会都是获得信息、支持和鼓励的不错对象。(如果想参加身旁的国际母乳会聚会,你可以致电800-LALECHE或者访问www.lalecheleague.org

 

Breastfeeding with Confidence

Mothers are often surprised by how few people realize they‘‘re breastfeeding once they‘‘re comfortable and have mastered the art of nursing in public. The more you nurse in the presence of others, the less you may find yourself worrying about the thoughts of people around you. Go ahead: make eye contact with passersby or relax and enjoy the moment. Your positive attitude can even influence others and help create a society that is more breastfeeding friendly. As Behrmann notes:

I‘‘ve long believed that to nurse in public does more than meet the needs of a child; it does a public service....For despite the ways in which the cultural milieu makes our nursing experiences more complicated, one feeding at a time, one woman at a time, we change the world. (Behrmann 2005)

 

自信地哺乳

妈妈们掌握公共场合哺乳技巧之后都很惊讶几乎没人注意到她们在喂奶。在人前喂得越多,就越不在意旁人。大胆地和路人眼神交流或者放松身心享受这一刻。积极的态度甚至会感染他人,有利于创造一个对“母乳喂养更友善”的社会。

Behrman认为在公众场合哺乳不仅是给孩子喂奶,同时也是一种公共服务。尽管文化环境让喂奶变得复杂,但从每次喂奶每个妈妈做起,我们可以改变整个世界。(Behrmann 2005)

 

At the moment, your main concern is probably making your baby‘‘s world the best it can be. As a breastfeeding mother, you‘‘re off to a great start. Listen to your baby, follow your mothering instincts, and decide what your level of comfort is for breastfeeding in public. Whether you choose to nurse in front of a few close family members and friends or in a crowded area of unknown faces, do so with confidence. No explanations are necessary.

可能你目前最关心的是如何给宝宝最好的世界。作为母乳喂养妈妈,你已经给了宝宝一个好开始。听从宝宝的需求,跟着母性本能走,对于在公共场合哺乳,你自己来决定怎么做。不管是在亲朋好友面前还是尽是陌生面孔的拥挤人群中喂奶,自信地进行,无需解释。

 

References

Behrmann, B. The Breastfeeding Café. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2005.

Dettwyler, K.A. "Beauty and the Breast: The Cultural Context of Breastfeeding in the United States," in Breastfeeding: Biocultural Perspectives, (New York: Adline de Gruyter, 1995) 167-215.

Flower, H. "Nursing Mothers Have Rights, Too." St. Petersburg Times, 14 August 2005.

Granju, K.A. Attachment Parenting. New York, New York: Pocket Books, 1999.

Kuczka, S. "Mom Tells of Park Incident" Chicago Tribune, 15 June 2005.

La Leche League International. THE WOMANLY ART OF BREASTFEEDING. Schaumburg, Illinois: La Leche League International, 2004.

O‘‘Mara, P. Natural Family Living. New York, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000.

Pugliese, A.R. Breastfeeding in public. NEW BEGINNINGS 2000; 17(6):196-200.

Schiedel, E. and Chiono, M. Breastfeeding and Sexuality. La Leche League International, 2000. Publication No. 926-17.

Vakiener, M. Responding to criticism. NEW BEGINNINGS 1999; 16(4):116-19.

 

Breastfeeding and the Law

母乳喂养与相关法律法规

 

Canada

From INFACT Canada (www.infactcanada.ca/HumanRights.htm):

The right to breastfeed anywhere, anytime is protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (discrimination based on sex). In Canada each province has a Human Rights Code. These codes protect women from discrimination on the basis of sex. To date, only Ontario (www.ohrc.on.ca/english/guides/pregnancy-breastfeeding.shtml) and British Columbia (www.infactcanada.ca/B.C._HR_Policy_Procedure_Manual.htm) specifically detail the rights of breastfeeding mothers. These provisions include time, access and accommodation in the workplace and in public. Ontario has also has a policy on Discrimination Because of Pregnancy (www.ohrc.on.ca/english/publications/pregnancy-policy.shtml).

 

加拿大

出处:加拿大INFACT机构(www.infactcanada.ca/HumanRights.htm)

《加拿大权利与自由宪章》(反性别歧视)规定在任何场所、任何时间进行母乳喂养的权利均受法律保护。加拿大各省均有自己的人权法案,保护妇女免受性别歧视。至今只有安大略省(www.ohrc.on.ca/english/guides/pregnancy-breastfeeding.shtml)和英属哥伦比亚www.infactcanada.ca/B.C._HR_Policy_Procedure_Manual.htm)对乳母权利进行了详细规定,包括工作以及公共场合母乳喂养的时间、途径以及母婴室的提供等。安大略省还出台了保护孕妇免受歧视的政策。

 

In Canada, legal precedent has not been set to specifically include breastfeeding under human rights protection to date, however, the Supreme Court of Canada decision, Brooks v. Canadian Safeway Ltd. (1989), 59 D.L.R. (4th) 321 (S.C.C.), Dickson C.J.C. confirms that pregnancy discrimination is sexual discrimination since only women can become pregnant. If challenged about breastfeeding in public, find out more information at www.infactcanada.ca/BreastfeedinginPublic.htm.

加拿大的判例法目前尚未特别将母乳喂养纳入人权保护范围,但是,加拿大最高法院决定(布鲁克斯诉加拿大西弗韦有限公司案,1989年,59 D.L.R. (4th) 321 (S.C.C.), Dickson C.J.C.)规定,鉴于只有妇女才能怀孕,因此孕妇歧视等同于性别歧视。如果在公共场合哺乳遭到拒绝或攻击,请登录www.infactcanada.ca/BreastfeedinginPublic.htm以了解相关信息。

 

Scotland

Under The Breastfeeding Etc. (Scotland) Bill, it is an offense to prevent or stop a person in charge of a child who is otherwise permitted in a public place or licensed premises from feeding milk to that child in that place or on that premises. Although the bill applies equally to bottle-feeding, it is the issue of breastfeeding in public that is likely to cause most debate and therefore much of this briefing is centered on this theme. For more information, go to www.scottish.parliament.uk/business/bills/index.htm.

苏格兰

根据苏格兰母乳喂养法案,阻止或制止照看婴幼儿的人在婴幼儿被允许进入食的场所给该婴幼儿喂奶将构成犯罪行为。尽管该法案对奶瓶喂养有同等效力,但在公共场合哺乳更容易引起争议,因此该简报主要倾向于母乳喂养方面。有关更多信息,请访问www.scottish.parliament.uk/business/bills/index.htm

 

USA

Breastfeeding in public is not illegal in any state of the US; however, only certain states have laws addressing public breastfeeding. Some states exempt breastfeeding from public indecency laws; other states have statutes protecting a mother‘‘s right to breastfeed in public. If you reside in a state that does not have a law or only exempts breastfeeding from indecency laws, a private business owner may have the right to ask you not to engage in breastfeeding on the premises. This does not mean that breastfeeding in public is illegal in these states, just that a mother has no protection in a situation where she is asked to leave a private establishment. More information can be found at www.lalecheleague.org/LawMain.html.

美国

在美国任何州当众哺乳均不违法,但只有几个州通过立法来解决公共场合母乳喂养问题。某些州规定母乳喂养不构成公开猥亵罪;其他州则出台法规来保护妇女在公共场合哺乳的权利。如果你居住的州没有相关立法或仅认定母乳喂养不构成猥亵罪,私营公司或将有权要求你不要在办公场所喂奶。这并非意味着在这些州的公共场合哺乳是违法的,只是说如果某位母亲在私立机构哺乳时被劝阻是不受法律保护的。有关更多信息,请访问www.lalecheleague.org/LawMain.html

 

Is there legislation to protect breastfeeding in your country? We‘‘re interested in finding out more about breastfeeding and the law in countries outside the US. The information may be compiled and used in future LLLI publications. Send information to Publications at LLLI or to the LLLI Publications Department, 957 N. Plum Grove Road, Schaumburg IL 60173 USA.

你的国家是否通过立法来保护母乳喂养权利?我们期待了解美国以外其他更多国家和地区的母乳喂养立法情况。你提供的信息可能会被采纳用于国际母乳会将来的出版物。请将信息发送至国际母乳会的出版物或邮寄至LLLI Publications Department, 957 N. Plum Grove Road, Schaumburg IL 60173 USA

 

 

Breastfeeding in public is an issue that many mothers struggle with. It‘‘s common to be nervous about nursing in the presence of others in the early days, only to lose those inhibitions with time and practice. Here‘‘s what mothers have shared in past issues of NEW BEGINNINGS.

当众哺乳让很多妈妈都感到为难。以前在别人面前喂奶通常都会很紧张,但时间久了,练习多了,自然就没那么紧张了。过去几期《新起点》杂志刊载了一些妈妈的经验。

 

It‘‘s tricky balancing discretion and the needs of children, and somewhere in there I take into account my own comfort and the needs of the moment. It‘‘s fun reflecting on the places I‘‘ve nursed, and it lets me realize how far I‘‘ve come in this area of my parenting. It helps me strengthen my resolve.

Lora Reynolds

Trafford PA USA

要平衡自己的行为与孩子的需求,需要一点技巧,一方面既要照顾自己的感受,另一方面又要考虑到当时的需求。回想一下我曾当众哺乳过的地方还挺有意思的,这些经历让我意识到我对孩子的养育走到了哪一步。它们也更加坚定了我母乳喂养的决心。

Lora Reynolds

美国宾夕法尼亚州,特拉福德

 

 

I was still rather conservative [about nursing in public] but much braver and open about my inhibitions than I thought I could be. Having a child changed the way I thought about my breasts....Maybe it was the realization that my breasts were not sex objects but rather a source of food and comfort for my baby. And certainly, it was becoming a mother and doing what I felt was best for my baby. I let go and let love happen and everything else fell into place.

Shari Ann Wenzel

Hometown IL USA

我在当众哺乳这方面还是挺保守的,不过我现在比以前想象的勇敢多了,也更加放得开了。有孩子以后我对乳房的看法变了……可能是因为理解了我的乳房不再涉及性方面,而是孩子的粮仓和港湾。顺理成章的,它承担了母亲的义务并为我的孩子奉献了最好的一切。我跟着感觉和爱走,一切都很自然。

Shari Ann Wenzel

美国伊利诺斯州,Hometown

My first foray into the world of breastfeeding in public in Jordan was not exactly "public"... I wasn‘‘t up to pushing the cultural envelope at a quaint little village restaurant, so I retreated to the toilet facility. I was amazed at the reception Nolan and I received. The universality of a breastfeeding mother far outweighed the difference in nationalities, and women came over to watch, converse, and tickle the baby. Emboldened, I began to nurse in more public places....I turned my back when possible and I always wore suitable clothing. I was never made to feel out of place. I was always treated with respect and given privacy.

Joan Carlton Griswold

Bellevue WA USA

我第一次在约旦踏入当众哺乳世界的大门其实算不上“当众”。事情发生在一家古朴的乡村餐厅,当时我没打算掀开那层“文化的幕布”,所以我选择撤退到洗手间去喂奶。然而我很讶异自已和诺兰在招待处所受到的关注。母乳喂养妈妈的普遍性远比国籍差别重要得多,女人们走过来围观、交谈,逗小婴儿。受到鼓舞,我开始勇敢地在更开放的场所喂奶……如果有可能我会把背转过去,再加上我总是穿着方便喂奶的衣服,所以我从来没有感觉很突兀,别人也总是很尊重我的隐私。

Joan Carlton Griswold

美国华盛顿州,贝尔维尤

A "nursing in public" event I never anticipated was a turning point for us. One morning when Samuel was 17 months old, I went on a guided nature tour....When Samuel was ready to nurse as we neared the end of our walk...I just knelt down and latched him on, then stood up and continued walking and talking with him in my arms. My sweatshirt kept us discreet. Just as we neared our destination, I looked ahead and saw a photojournalist snapping pictures of us as we approached him, and my first thought was, "What do you think you‘‘re doing! I‘‘m already nursing a toddler in public, I don‘‘t need to explain myself to a reporter, too!" Samuel was mostly asleep, but wouldn‘‘t let go, so I just resigned myself and walked on. Our picture made the front page of the paper the next day, and the only people who noticed that Samuel might be breastfeeding were friends who also nursed their babies....Somehow, since that point, I just haven‘‘t worried much about nursing in public!

Kathy Rausch

Greenland

一个我始料未及的“当众哺乳”事件成了我哺乳路上的转折点。那是萨缪尔十七个月大时的一个早晨,我带他跟团去户外亲近大自然。快走完的时候萨缪尔想吃奶了。我蹲下站他含乳,然后抱起他来一边走一边和他讲话。我的运动衫为我们提供了隐私空间。快到目的地的时候我抬头一看,发现一位新闻摄影记者在抓拍我们。当然我脑子里闪过的第一个念头就是,“你以为自己在做什么!我正是在当众喂我的小孩,而我不需要向一名记者来做解释!”萨缪尔那时几乎快睡着了,但不肯松开乳头,所以我继续边走边喂。第二天我们的照片便登上了报纸的头版,不过只有那些喂过小孩的朋友注意到照片中的萨缪尔可能正在吃奶……某种程度上,从那时起我再也不担心当众哺乳这回事了。

Kathy Rausch

格陵兰岛

Several years ago...my husband‘‘s younger sister joined us on vacation. While we were walking near the beach one afternoon, my son, David, asked to nurse. My sister-in-law asked with surprise, "He‘‘s still nursing?" Time almost stood still for me as possible responses ran through my head....I took a deep breath and said, as calmly as I could, "Yes, isn‘‘t that wonderful? I‘‘m really proud that we‘‘ve been able to keep it up so long especially because I went back to work part-time." She seemed satisfied by my answer and the moment passed, leaving both of us with our dignities intact.

Marianne Vakiener

Fairfax VA USA

几年前,我丈夫的妹妹和我们一家一起旅游。一天下午我们在海边散步,走着走着我儿子大卫说想吃奶。这时我那位小姑子吃惊地问,“他还在吃奶啊?”时间一下子停止了,我脑子里闪过好几种回答……我深吸一口气并尽量平静地说,“是啊?觉得很棒吧?特别是我自己在做兼职,还能喂这么久,我真的很自豪。”小姑子似乎很满意我的回答,时间又重新往前走,我们谁都没有伤到对方的自尊。

Marianne Vakiener

美国弗吉尼亚州,弗尔法克斯郡

 

As I nursed my son at the local shopping mall, a family approached our bench and glanced at us. "Look, Mommy," said the little girl. "See the baby? There‘‘s a baby." The mother looked in the direction her little girl was pointing and smiled....After looking at us for a few seconds, she realized Morgan was breastfeeding. Her expression changed. She gasped and grabbed her daughter‘‘s hand, pushed her husband and son ahead of her, and whispered loudly and furiously, "Don‘‘t look at her. She‘‘s breastfeeding."

I felt humiliated, embarrassed, sad, angry, and misunderstood. I wanted to disappear. I wanted to cry out, "I am just feeding my baby. I am doing what I believe to be best for him. It is not a disgusting or perverted thing -- he is getting the best possible food for him right now, and we are forming a close bond in the process."

I longed to educate all those people who were so set against nursing a baby in public....I wanted to tell them...that we need to be out there discreetly breastfeeding in public, not only for our own comfort and sanity, but to educate.

Alicia Clemens Booksh

Kenner LA USA

我在当地一家购物中心给儿子喂奶的时候,一家人走近我们的长椅看着我们,小女孩说,“妈妈,快看快看,看到没,有个小宝宝。”那位母亲看着女儿指的方向,微微一笑。看了几秒钟之后,她才意识到摩根正在吃奶。她的表情立刻变了,抓起她女儿的手,推着她丈夫和儿子往前走,又大声又愤怒地嘀咕说,“别看了!她在喂奶。”

那一刻我既感到羞愧和尴尬,又感到难过和愤怒,我觉得得不到别人理解。我真想立马消失,我也想大声发泄,“我不过是在喂我的宝宝,做着我认为对他是最好的事。喂奶又不是什么肮脏、不正当的事情——他现在吃的对他而言可能是最好的食物,通过喂奶,我们之间有了亲密无间的纽带。”

我很想教育那些反对当众哺乳的人,我很想告诉他们,我们需要在公共场合低调地喂奶,不仅是为了我们自己的自在与舒适,更是为了教育大众。

Alicia Clemens Booksh

美国洛杉矶,肯纳

 

(小晓妈妈、白山 Shiuh-janeDaisy审稿)

 

 

 


 
 
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