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如何添加辅食?  First Foods for Babies


如何添加辅食? First Foods for Babies

First foods for babies

宝宝第一阶段的辅食

 

How to start solids:

如何添加辅食

 

Nurse your baby before offering other foods. Human milk remains the single most important food in your baby‘‘s diet until his first birthday. Additionally, he is more likely to show interest in new foods if he is not ravenously hungry. At this age, other foods are more for experimentation, play and fun. Remember to offer to nurse again after the solid "meal".

给宝宝添加新的食物前先喂奶。在一周岁以前母乳仍然是宝宝饮食中最重要的食物。此外,宝宝不是饥肠辘辘的情况下,往往更容易对新食物表现出兴趣。在这个年龄阶段,辅食更多的是一种体验、游戏和乐趣。请记住吃过固体食物以后再喂一次奶 

 

Some babies like to sit in a high chair while others prefer to sit in somebody‘‘s lap. Babies are messy, so you may want to put an old shower curtain under his chair for easier cleanup.

有些宝宝喜欢坐餐椅,另外一些宝宝则喜欢坐在大人的腿上 。宝宝吃饭容易弄得到处都是,您可以在他的餐椅下面铺一张旧浴帘以便于清洁

 

Many babies prefer finger foods to spoons. First foods are for fun and experimentation. Neatness doesn‘‘t count!

很多宝宝更喜欢用手指吃东西而不喜欢用勺子。第一阶段的食物更多的是为了一种体验和乐趣。别期待一切都能保持整洁。

 

Never leave a baby or young child alone with food in case they begin to choke. Never give your baby small, hard foods like peanuts or popcorn. Foods that are circular in shape such as carrots or grapes should be sliced and then halved or quartered.

绝对不要让宝宝或者年龄小的孩子单独吃饭,以免他们被食物噎到。绝对不要给您的宝宝体积小而坚硬的食物,比如花生和爆米花。像胡萝卜和葡萄这类圆形食物,要把它们切成两瓣,或者四瓣

 

Start with tiny amounts of food – about a quarter of a teaspoon once a day. Gradually increase the amount of food and the frequency of feeding to satisfy your baby‘‘s hunger and interest.

从少量食物开始—--—每天大概四分之一茶匙。逐渐增加食物的量和次数,以满足宝宝的胃口和兴趣。

 

Use only single ingredients and wait about a week between introducing each new food. Then, if something upsets your baby, you will know exactly what it was.

每次只喂一种成分,再添加新的食物需要间隔一个星期。这样,您可以准确地知道什么食物让你的宝宝感觉不对劲。

 

To minimize the risk of allergies, it‘‘s a good idea to wait until your baby is at least a year old before introducing citrus fruits (including oranges, lemons, and grapefruit) kiwi, strawberries, peanuts and peanut butter, eggs, soy products (including soy milk and tofu), and cow‘‘s milk (including cheeses, yogurt, and ice cream). If there is a family history of food allergy, consult your doctor or allergist for advice on when to start your baby on these more-allergenic foods; it may differ from recommendations for babies without allergic history.

为了将过敏的风险降到最低,最好等到您的宝宝一岁以后再添加柑橘类水果(包括橘子,柠檬和柚子),猕猴桃,草莓,花生和花生酱,鸡蛋,豆制品(包括豆浆和豆腐),以及牛奶(包括奶酪,酸奶和冰淇淋)。如果有家族食物过敏史,询问您的医生或者过敏专家,什么时间给您的宝宝添加上述容易引起过敏的食物最合适;您得到的建议可能不同于那些没有过敏史的宝宝

 

Babies under a year should not be given honey or corn syrup as they carry the risk of botulism.

一岁以内的宝宝不能添加蜂蜜和玉米糖浆,因为它们可能造成肉毒杆菌中毒。

 

Good first foods for babies

适合宝宝的第一阶段食物

 

Save money and give your baby the freshest food by making your own baby food. Here are some suggestions.

节约开销,自己动手给宝宝做最新鲜的食物。以下是一些建议。

 

Fruits

水果

 

Most babies love fruits. Make sure they are ripe, and wash well before peeling. Here are some favorites:

大多数宝宝喜爱水果。确定它们已经成熟并清洗干净 ,然后削皮。下面是一些很受欢迎的水果:

 

Bananas cut into slices which have then been halved or quartered

香蕉切片后再切成两半,或者四瓣

 

Unsweetened applesauce, or tiny apple chunks that have been softened by cooking in the microwave

不加糖的苹果泥,或者在微波炉里加热变软的苹果,切成小块。

 

Plums, peaches, pears, and apricots, gently cooked if necessary

西梅,桃子,梨子和杏,需要时可以适当加热

 

Avocado diced into small, bite size pieces

牛油果切成可以直接咬的小块

 

Vegetables

蔬菜

 

Fresh vegetables should be washed, peeled and cooked until tender. Frozen veggies are convenient to have on hand. Avoid the canned varieties to which salt has been added. Your baby may enjoy:

新鲜蔬菜需要清洗,去皮并烹饪直到变软。可以冷冻一些蔬菜备用。避免使用罐装蔬菜,因为里面添加了盐。您的宝宝可能会喜欢:

 

Baked or boiled sweet potatoes, in tiny chunks

烤或者煮的红薯,切成很小的块

 

Mashed white potatoes

土豆泥

 

Baby carrots, green beans, peas and squash

小胡萝卜,青豆,豌豆和瓜类

 

Meat and fish

肉和鱼

 

Babies often prefer well-cooked chicken, which is soft and easy to eat when shredded. Be careful to remove even the tiny bones when serving fish.

宝宝通常喜欢烹饪彻底的鸡肉,又软,撕碎以后更容易吃。在给宝宝鱼的时候即使是非常细小的鱼刺也要剔除。

 

Beans and legumes

豆子和豆类蔬菜

 

Remove the skins from beans as they tend to be harder to digest. If you use canned beans for convenience, make sure they are unseasoned.

去掉豆子的壳因为它们很难消化 。如果您为了方便选择使用罐装豆子,请保证它们没有添加调味料。

 

Grains and cereals

谷物和麦片

 

Commercial, iron-fortified cereals are often the first foods served to babies who are not breastfeeding because they need the extra iron, but breastfed babies are rarely anemic as the iron in human milk is well-utilized. If there is concern about the baby‘‘s iron levels, a simple test can be done in the doctor‘‘s office.

市面上,添加铁的麦片经常用做非母乳宝宝的第一阶段食物,因为他们需要额外的铁,而母乳宝宝由于母乳里面的铁可以被很好地利用而很少发生贫血。如果担心宝宝的含铁量,可以请医生做一个很简单的测试。

 

Whole grain cereals, breads and crackers are the most nutritious. Wait until later in the year before offering wheat products. If you use cereals, make sure that they only have one ingredient and use either water or your own milk for mixing. Many mothers prefer to let their older babies chew on a hard bagel or an end of bread instead of sugary teething biscuits.

全谷物麦片,面包和饼干是最有营养的。等到快一岁的时候再添加小麦制品。如果您使用麦片,请确保它们是单配方的,并使用水或者您的奶来调和。有些妈妈喜欢让大一点的宝宝咬硬贝谷圈,或者面包边而不是含糖的磨牙饼干。

 

References

参考

 

The American Academy of Pediatrics:

美国儿科学会

 

http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;115/2/496

"Pediatricians and parents should be aware that exclusive breastfeeding is sufficient to support optimal growth and development for approximately the first 6 months of life and provides continuing protection against diarrhea and respiratory tract infection. Breastfeeding should be continued for at least the first year of life and beyond for as long as mutually desired by mother and child.

儿科医生以及父母们应该了解,纯母乳喂养能够满足婴儿头6个月的最佳生长和发育 ,并且在此之后继续预防腹泻和呼吸道感染。母乳喂养应该至少持续到1岁以后,并根据妈妈和孩子的共同需求持续下去

 

Complementary foods rich in iron should be introduced gradually beginning around 6 months of age. Preterm and low birth weight infants and infants with hematologic disorders or infants who had inadequate iron stores at birth generally require iron supplementation before 6 months of age. Iron may be administered while continuing exclusive breastfeeding.

6个月左右应该逐步添加富含铁的食物。早产儿,低体重婴儿和有血液疾病的婴儿,以及出生时铁含量不足的婴儿通常需要在6个月之前补充铁。铁可以在纯母乳喂养时补充

 

Unique needs or feeding behaviors of individual infants may indicate a need for introduction of complementary foods as early as 4 months of age, whereas other infants may not be ready to accept other foods until approximately 8 months of age.

有特殊需求或者进食习惯的个别宝宝也许会要求在 4个月的时候就开始添加辅食,其他婴儿可能直到8个月才准备好接受辅食。

 

Introduction of complementary feedings before 6 months of age generally does not increase total caloric intake or rate of growth and only substitutes foods that lack the protective components of human milk.

给不足6个月的婴儿进食固体食品,并不能够提高卡路里的摄入,也不能够提高生长速度,反而仅仅是用缺乏人乳所含保护性营养的食品来替代母乳

 

During the first 6 months of age, even in hot climates, water and juice are unnecessary for breastfed infants and may introduce contaminants or allergens.

在最初的6个月,即使在天气很热的气候下,母乳宝宝也不需要添加水和果汁,并且水和果汁还可能引起污染和过敏

 

Increased duration of breastfeeding confers significant health and developmental benefits for the child and the mother, especially in delaying return of fertility (thereby promoting optimal intervals between births).

母乳喂养时间的延长明显利于母亲和孩子的健康及发育,特别是延缓了下一次生育(因此促进最佳的生育间隔 )。

 

There is no upper limit to the duration of breastfeeding and no evidence of psychologic or developmental harm from breastfeeding into the third year of life or longer.

母乳喂养没有上限,并且没有证据表明母乳喂养到三岁或三岁以上会产生心理或者发育上的危害

 

Infants weaned before 12 months of age should not receive cow‘‘s milk but should receive iron-fortified infant formula."

12个月之前断奶的婴儿不应该摄入牛奶,而应该摄取添加铁的婴儿配方奶。



 
 
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